Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) can cause inflammation as well as infection of your liver. The person can have this disease and transmit the same to other people without knowing that they have the same. A few people do not experience any symptoms of Hepatitis B. Some others only have an initial infection that then resolves. For other people, this condition turns out to be chronic. In chronic conditions, this virus continuously attacks your liver over time without any detection, and this results in irreparable liver damage. This disease is spread while people come into contact with blood, open sores, or the body fluids of somebody who has HBV.
Nearly half of the adults with this disease never experience any symptoms. Also, its symptoms can feel like other illnesses, such as the flu. So, it is possible that you have an infection but don’t know about it. A majority of adults with this disease fully recover, even if the symptoms and signs are extreme. Furthermore, children and infants have been at a high risk of developing a long-lasting (chronic) HBV infection. The vaccine can prevent this disease, however, there is no cure in case you have this condition. In case you get infected, taking specific precautions can assist prevent its spread to other people.
Causes of hepatitis B virus
HBV’s cause is the Hepatitis B Virus that infects your body. This virus takes place in your blood as well as bodily fluids. Hepatitis B is transmissible through vaginal fluids, blood, and semen. Also, it can pass from the mother to her newborn baby during delivery. Having sex without the use of contraception and sharing needles both enhance the risk. An individual can also get infected from this disease while visiting a part across the Globe in which the infection is quite common. Any person can spread this virus without knowing, as it might not cause any symptoms.
A lot of Hepatitis B Virus infections take place during childhood or infancy. This is because the mother can pass this disease to her child during the childbirth process. However, doctors rarely diagnose Hepatitis B in childhood since it causes some obvious symptoms. Causing infection of liver, the new Hepatitis B symptoms might not be obvious in kids under 5 years of age or in the adults with the repressed immune system.
Among those who are 5 years old or more than that, about 30%-50% will present initial symptoms and signs. The acute symptoms take place nearly 60-150 days after the virus exposure, as well as they, can last from various weeks to 6 months. An individual with chronic HBV infection might have ongoing episodes of persistent fatigue, aching joints, and abdominal pain.
Symptoms and signs of HBV range from light to extreme. Often, they appear almost 1-4 months after a person has been infected, though you could view them as prior as 2 weeks post-infection. A few people, commonly young kids, might not have the symptoms.
The symptoms and signs of Hepatitis B might include –
- Dark urine
- Abdominal pain
- Joint Pain
- Vomiting and Nausea
- Appetite loss
- Yellowing of the skin as well as whites of the eyes (Jaundice)
- Fatigue and Weakness
In case the doctor thinks that you have Hepatitis B, he will offer you the complete physical examination. He will test the blood to view if the liver is inflamed. In terms of Diagnosis of hepatitis B, in case you have its symptoms along with high liver enzymes levels, you will be tested for –
- Hepatitis B surface antigen & antibody (HBsAg) – The antigens are proteins on HBV. Antibodies are proteins that are made by the immune cells. They show up in the blood between 1-10 weeks after the exposure. In case you recover, they go away after 4-6 months. In case they still are thereafter the 6 months, then there is a chronic condition.
- Hepatitis B surface Antibody (anti-HBs) – These occur after the disappearance of HBsAg. They are what make a person immune to this disease for the rest of his/her life.
In case the disease turns out to be chronic, the doctor may take the tissue sample from the liver, known as a biopsy. It will tell him how extreme the case is.
There is no special cure, medication, or treatment for the acute Hepatitis B Virus infection. Assisted care will depend upon the symptoms.
How is Hepatitis B treated in case of its suspected exposure?
Anybody who has had likely exposure to Hepatitis B Virus can go through the post-exposure “prophylaxis” protocol. It contains HBIG (Hepatitis B Immunoglobin) and vaccination. The healthcare workers offer you the prophylaxis after exposure as well as before the acute infection gets developed.
This agreement won’t cure the infection which has developed already. However, this reduces the acute infection rate.
Treatment for the chronic Hepatitis B Virus infection
For the chronic Hepatitis B Virus infection, the antiviral medications are available. It is not a cure for the chronic Hepatitis B Virus. However, these medicines can put a stop to this virus from replication as well as from preventing its progression into advanced liver disease.
People who are infected from chronic HBV need ongoing medical assessment as well as the ultrasound of your liver in every 6-12 months. This observation can assist doctors to evaluate if the liver damage is processing or your condition is getting worse.
Moreover, it is always a good idea to interact with the health care provider or look for medical attention in case you don’t feel good or in case you are unsure regarding whether or not you have the HBV infection. An easy Hepatitis B Blood test can simply diagnose whether you have been infected from this disease or not.